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HIV-associated high-risk HPV infection in Nigerian women.
2013 ASCO Annual Meeting
J Clin Oncol 31, 2013 (suppl; abstr 1576)
Author(s): Sally Nneoma Akarolo-Anthony, Celestine C. Ogbonna, Oluranti Ayotunde Famooto, Eileen O. Dareng, Maryam Al-Mujtaba, George Odonye, Olayinka Olaniyan, Richard Offiong, Ishak Lawal, Cosette Wheeler, Clement Adebayo Adebamowo; Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA; Institute of Human Virology, Abuja, Nigeria; National Hospital, Abuja, Nigeria; University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Abuja, Nigeria; University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM; Institute of Human Virology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD
Background: The incidence of cervical cancer has remained stable in HIV+ women but the prevalence and multiplicity of high risk HPV (hrHPV) infection, a necessary cause of cervical cancer, appears different comparing HIV+ to HIV- women. Because this has not been well studied in Africa, we conducted this study to identify single and multiple hrHPV infection among HIV+ and HIV- women in Nigeria. Methods: We enrolled HIV+ and HIV- women presenting at our cervical cancer screening program in Abuja, Nigeria between April 2012 and August 2012. Using a nurse administered questionnaire, we collected information on demographic characteristics, risk factors of HPV infection and cervical exfoliated cells samples from all participants. We used Roche Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test to characterize the prevalent HPV according to manufacturer’s instruction and logistic regression models to estimate the association between HIV infection and the risk of high-risk HPV infection. Results: There were 278 participants, 40% (111) of whom were HIV negative, 54% (151) HIV positive and 6% (16) with HIV status unknown. Of these, 108 HIV+ women cases and 149 HIV- women controls were available for analysis. The mean ages (±SD) were 37.6 (±7.7) for HIV+ and 36.6 (±7.9) years for HIV- women (p-value = 0.34). Cases and controls had similar socio-demographic characteristics. Among HIV+ women, HPV35 (8.7%) and HPV56 (7.4%) were the most prevalent hrHPV, while HPV52 and HPV68 (2.8%, each) were the most prevalent among HIV- women. The age adjusted RR for prevalent hrHPV was 4.18 (95% CI 2.05 – 8.49, p-value <0.0001), comparing HIV+ to HIV- women. The multivariate RR for any HPV and multiple hrHPV was 3.75 (95% CI 2.08 – 6.73, p-value 0.01) and 6.6 (95% CI 1.49 – 29.64, p-value 0.01) respectively, comparing HIV+ to HIV- women, adjusted for age, and educational level. Conclusions: HIV infection was associated with increased risk of any HPV, hrHPV and multiple HPV infections. Oncogenic HPV types 35, 52, 56 and 68 may be more important risk factors for cervical pre-cancer and cancer among women in Africa. Polyvalent hrHPV vaccines meant for African populations should protect against HPV types other than 16 and 18.
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